Water

October 20th 2011.  The project is rushing to get the village primary school equipped for rainwater harvesting before the annual rainy season starts. The rains used to be predictable, starting in November and going through to April,  but climate change means that nowadays in Chololo you never know when the rains are going to start or finish.

Currently there is no fresh water supply in the village, so women have to walk 3kms to Kikombo, the neighbouring village, with a 20 litre container or bucket on their head – about a 2 hour round trip.

WATER PLANS

MAMADO will lead on water management activities, in cooperation with project partners. The community as direct beneficiaries of this project will be involved in each stage of the project.

 

W1.             Planning meetings with project stakeholders

Official introduction of the project to local leaders, CSOs and community. Introducing the water management project at district and community level. Creating awareness about village community water status and water characteristics.

 

W2.            Training to educate the community about climate change and its impact on water supplies. Training will include formation and registration of water user groups, water rights, and integrated water resource management. Activities will include providing training manuals, leaflets, banners and posters, training on water rights, constitution and registration process. Village water user / women’s groups will be formed, and the roles of village government and water committee defined, enabling the opening of village water account, monitoring and documentation.

 

W3.  Rehabilitation of existing village borehole

The existing borehole in Chololo village is currently not functioning due to wear and tear of its pump and engine parts. As a result women are typically walking 2.5 hrs per day to fetch water from the next village. Rehabilitation will be done by purchasing and fitting of new spare parts. The rehabilitation will also involve uplifting of the pump rods, fitting of the pump as well as servicing the diesel engine. After fitting the pump and engine, the well will be developed and cleaned to ensure that water pumped from the borehole is free from sand and other fine materials. Skilled technicians will be hired from the DWE’s office to undertake this activity. Two village pump attendants will also be involved so as to improve their capacity in the matters of operation and maintenance of the borehole.

 

W4. Water level and discharge measurements – pump and recovery tests

The water level measurements will be done when conducting pump and recovery tests. The well will be pumped for at least 6 hours and water level changes be observed simultaneously. Measurements of well discharge will be made by using calibrated vessels. Water level measurements will be taken by using a dipper. Submersible electrical pump will be used during pump testing. After 6 hours of continuous pumping, the pump will be switched off and recovery test conducted to establish the rate of recovery of the water levels. These exercises will then enable the establishment of the maximum and safe yield of the borehole during both drought and rain seasons.

 

W5. Assessment of the water quality and aquifer characteristics

Apart from the existing borehole, 6 test holes of 10m depth will be drilled in the vicinity of the village for the assessment of both groundwater quality and aquifer characteristics. 2 water samples and 6 water samples will be collected from the Borehole and test holes respectively. The water samples will then be sent to the water laboratory to determine its physical, bacteriological and chemical characteristics. The physical, bacteriological and chemical parameters obtained will be assessed and compared with Tanzanian water quality standard for drinking water. During test holes drilling, soil samples will be collected and logged at 1m intervals. Soil samples will be analyzed to determine its texture, grain size, porosity and permeability.

 

W6. Promotion of rainwater harvesting technology through roof catchments

Rainwater harvesting systems will be constructed at the village dispensary and primary school. The rainwater harvesting system will be comprised of three interconnected underground reserve tanks, roof gutters and pipeline networks. The underground reserve tanks will be constructed in a manner that water contained in them will flow in one direction where a hand pump has been installed. A hand pump (Nira AF 85) will be installed in one of the three storage tanks. The storage capacity of each storage tank will be 20,000 litres. In this case, 60,000 litres of water will be collected in each institution. Four village attendants will be selected and trained in issues of operation and maintenance of the Rainwater Harvesting systems. Awareness on rainwater harvesting technology will be raised to communities for the sake of encouraging them to adapt the technology at household level.

 

W7. Promotion of rainwater harvesting technology through ground catchments – construction of 600m2 sand dam

The construction of a sand dam will have the following main components:

  • Construction of embankment – this is mainly masonry work. It will require skilled masons and carpenters, stones, bricks, sand, cement and water
  • Filling with sand – the upstream of the embankment will be filled with sand and create a room for accumulation of rain water. Sand will be collected from a nearby quarry and transported to the dam site by a lorry
  • Construction of water collection samp – this will be constructed by using bricks, cement, aggregates and water nearly at the edge of the dam. The water collection samp will be installed with a hand pump to enable the community fetch water for their domestic use
  • Construction of cattle trough – the cattle trough will also be constructed at the edge of a dam. It will be connected by a pipe to enable water to flow from the dam to the cattle trough
  • Supervision of all the civil works will be done by a hired civil engineer

 

W8. Promotion of rainwater harvesting technology through ground catchment – construction of sub-surface dam

The construction of sub surface dam will have the following main components:

  • Construction of embankment – the embankment will be constructed by using compacted clay. Soil compactor will be hired and make clay compaction at different soil layers. During soil compaction water will also be applied. A suitable site for clay collection will be identified and recommended by civil engineer
  • Construction of water collection samp – this will be constructed by using bricks, cement, aggregates and water nearly at the edge of the dam. The water collection samp will be installed with a hand pump to enable the community fetch water for their domestic use
  • Construction of cattle trough – the cattle trough will also be constructed at the edge of a dam. It will be connected by a pipe to enable water to flow from the dam to the cattle trough
  • Supervision of all the civil works will be done by a hired civil engineer

 

W9. Integrated water resources management

Integrated water resources management involves the overall participatory management of the water sources, water uses, water facilities and services. This will be accomplished through identification of different water users, assessment of water availability and reliability as well taking care of water source and environmental protection. The sub components of this objective will be awareness and planning meetings with communities and other key stakeholders, planting of trees in water catchment areas and community capacity building in water resources management

 

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